Waste Waiting to be Recorded and Utilized in Greece [in Greek]
Απόβλητα στην Ελλάδα εν Αναμονή Απογραφής και Αξιοποίησης [στα Ελληνικά]
Dr. P. Merkos / Prof. E. Gidarakos
Chem. Engineer, Env. Inspector of the Hellenic Ministry of Environment and Energy / Technical University of Crete (GR)
During this workshop, the following will be discussed:
Environmental odour is a major concern of residents in the vicinity of odour sources. This workshop will treat the entire chain from the odour source, the dilution in the atmosphere, detection technology of various VOC compounds up to the risk assessment as well as abatement strategies.
The workshop will include the characterization of the odour source by emission factors and emission models, the use of dispersion models to describe the transport and dilution in the atmosphere, the evaluation of odour impact criteria, human risk assessment of hazardous VOCs. The scope of the workshop is to include odorous substances related to the industry (e.g. rendering plants, refineries), municipal plants (e.g. waste treatment plants, solid waste landfills), and animal husbandry.
The goal of the workshop is the exchange ideas and to achieve a better understanding of the specific aspects relevant to environmental odour.
Today, consumers attention toward ACW management increased. More and more legislation had, and will have, to take into account the need to introduce new rules and actions addressed to realize a full control of all the different stages related to CRETE2018 – Workshop on HSI applied to ACW management. The development of accurate, fast, robust, reliable and objective quality inspection systems to apply with reference to every step of the entire ACW management chain, from the primary collection and handling to the final recovered products, is thus one of the challenges of the next years. To accept and win it, it is necessary the availability of analytical tools simple to apply, robust in detection performance and characterized by low costs. These aspects are linked to the need to perform a large number of analyses from the collection and storage stage to the industrial recycling/recovery stage. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can represent the right answer to fulfil all the previous mentioned goals. Such an approach, when successful, is quite challenging being usually reliable, robust and characterized by lower costs, if compared with those usually associated to commonly applied analytical off-line and/or on-line analytical approaches. More and more applications have been thus developed and tested, in these last years, in solid waste sector inspection, with a large range of investigated products, such as end-of-life polymer products, micro-plastics, construction and demolition waste, WEEE, PCB, cullet of different origins and characteristics, organic waste, etc. .
The course outline will include:
Part 1: hyperspectral imaging and chemiometrics fundamentals.
Part 2: architectures logics, units and devices to utilize to systematically apply HI based techniques for hazardous waste characterization, monitoring and control during the different recycling/processing stages (i.e. materials fed to the plant, processing control and final recovered products quality assessment).
Part 3: Examples of some application, based on HSI, originally developed by the authors, and/or also taken from the literature, are presented, compared, critically analyzed and discussed, with reference to the different hardware configuration and logics utilized to perform the analysis, according to the characterization, inspection and quality control actions to apply on the different ACW products in the different stages of their manipulation, handling and processing.
Target audience includes scientist, managers, technicians and engineers, active in the solid waste sector, who want to understand the potentialities offered by hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in real problems solving at laboratory (i.e. “off-line”) or industrial (i.e. “on-line” and/or “in-line”) scale. All those who are planning, or that should like, to introduce HSI based procedures inside an existing process.
Plastic (a non-renewable resource) recycling must globally increase. Flame retardancy is necessary in plastics for fire protection especially in printed circuit board, casing, cables and screens of electronical and electric equipment, in upholstering foam of cars and furniture, in isolating foam of buildings, in technical textiles, among others. Brominated flame retardants are used in some parts with concentrations between 5 and 15%, frequently with a synergist, antimony trioxide.
The gradual global classification of substances as persistent organic pollutant (POP) with concentration limits (0.1%) or mandatory destruction (in 2017: decabromodiphenylether), and in the EU the definition of the hazard property HP 14 ‘Ecotoxic’ with a concentration limit of 0.25% (2017 EU decision in force in June 2018) for these substances radically change the management of these plastics.
The presence of these legacy substances (substances not classified POP or hazardous at the time they were incorporated in products) creates challenges for the management of these bulk plastics (light fraction of automotive shredded residue – ASR, brominated polystyrene from buildings) or for the fraction sorted on line for bromine (plastics of some WEEE: small household appliances, screens, …):
The research on recovery technologies (polymer, purified fuel, bromine, antimony – a critical raw material) is active. The session will cover some aspects of the characterisation, the classification, the sorting, the promising technologies and the environmental impacts of this legacy.
Healthcare waste (HCW) includes the total waste stream from a healthcare facility. Healthcare facilities range from doctor’s office, medical practice, urgent care to hospitals and medical laboratory and research. For this reason HCW contains a wide range of waste similar to house-hold/domestic waste (paper, plastic packaging, food preparation, etc.) as well as hazardous waste. The hazardous HCW may be due to one or more of the following characteristics:
The workshop specialized HCW in hospitals to better understand the characteristics of HCW management and gives an overview of:
At two previous International Conference on Industrial and Hazardous Waste Management in 2014 and 2016, lessons learned during the removal and destruction of Syria’s 1,300 tonnes of chemical weapons materials were presented. This project involved a complex transport operation over land through a zone of armed conflict and maritime removal for subsequent destruction at facilities in several countries as well as on board a US container ship converted into a floating CW destruction plant. Another recent example for the removal of chemical weapons materials for disposal outside a conflict zone was the extraction in 2016 of chemical weapons precursors from Libya for destruction in Germany.
But the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes originating from military programmes is not limited to extreme situations. The development, testing, production, stockpiling, and transportation of military weapons inevitably results in stocks of hazardous materials as well as environmental contamination of buildings, soil, surface and ground waters. Also, disposal operations of obsolete or surplus weapons and of materials left behind from previous disposal campaigns have resulted in environmental contamination or created reservoirs of hazardous materials that over time may lead to accidental releases and environmental contamination.
The management, treatment and disposal of such old weapons and materials are of particular relevance when former military sites are handed back to public use. Types of chemicals that may be relevant in such circumstances may include explosives, propellants such as rocket fuels, toxic agents (lethal, incapacitating, harassing) and their precursor chemicals, incendiaries, smoke generating mixtures, and other types of chemicals including fuels, paints, solvents, additives, pesticides / herbicides and more. The chemicals may be present in bulk storage, weaponised in munitions or other military devices, or as residual contamination; they may be present as neat agent/chemicals or at different stages of degradation under the influence of environmental factors and time.
The workshop will provide an overview on technologies, regulatory issues and risk management approaches for such operations. It will focus, in particular, on the disposal of explosive materials, and in this regard cover the following topics:
New legal requirements for explosive disposal
Environmental concerns related to the disposal of explosives and materials containing explosives
Consequences of moving away from open burning/open detonation
Pros and cons on recycling
Challenges posed by old explosives sites and disposal solutions for explosives containing liquids, other explosives, demolition waste, contaminated soils and gases
Perhaps the most common and useful material since the beginning of the 20th century, plastics, has made modern life unthinkable without it. Mankind has developed a “disposable” lifestyle and estimates are that around 50% of plastic is used just once and thrown away. Because of their durability, low-recycling rates, poor waste management and maritime use, a significant portion of the plastics produced worldwide enters and persists in marine ecosystems, through a variety of pathways, including rivers. It has been estimated that between 4.8 and 12.7 million tonnes of plastics enter the ocean every year from coastal populations worldwide.
During the workshop, the real full dimensions of this global problem will be presented, its consequences will be explored, available solutions will be searched for, among which education and its dynamics.
The European Directive on waste (2008/98/EC) sets definitions and issues the basic concept for development of sustainable (municipal) waste management in the EU. Municipal waste management performance depends primarily on three treatment categories: recycling & composting, incineration and landfilling. The proposed Circular Economy Package should stimulate Europe’s transition towards more sustainable resources and energy oriented waste management. The Package also includes a revised legislative proposal on waste that sets ambitious recycling rates for municipal waste for 2025 (60%) and 2030 (65%). In this lesson, the dynamic visualisation of European (EU 28) municipal waste management performance, using the Ternary Diagram Method – RIL “Recycling, Incineration and Landfilling” –, will be presented. Such, three types of visualization for the municipal waste management performance have been investigated and are extensively described.
In general, municipal waste management is based on separate collection of valuable fractions and treatment of mixed municipal waste in incineration facilities as well as MBT plants. Separation of valuable fractions like plastics and metals from mixed waste for recycling processes as well as unwanted materials like PVC plastics by using modern sensor based contactless technology becomes very attractive and is increasingly applied in the practice. Recovery of (thermal) energy from mixed municipal solid waste usually is accomplished by mono-incineration plants or in co-incineration units. Three types of Solid Recovered Fuels (i.e. “SRF LOW Quality”, “SRF MEDIUM Quality” and “SRF PREMIUM Quality”) that are used in energy recovery plants are manufactured in Austria from mixed municipal solid waste. In the New Competence Centre for Excellent Technologies – K-Project “ReWaste4.0” Industry 4.0 approaches in waste management are investigated. Finally, all mentioned issues will be presented and discussed in the special course.
Industrial and hazardous wastes (IHW) pose a greater risk to the environment and human health than non-hazardous wastes and thus require a stricter control regime. Specifications are included in the European legislation, particularly in the Waste Framework Directive (WFD). Beside multiple options for waste recycling the major disposal pathways for IHW exist with incineration and disposal. The latter is not limited to direct disposal, but also constitutes a necessary amendment to the thermal treatment since highly toxic residues still have to be disposed of after incineration.
Contaminated sites are either the consequence of inappropriate waste handling and disposal or result from accidental events associated with IHWs. In order to allow for a future usage of these sites and to minimize the risk for the environment and human beings securing and eventually decontamination measures have to be applied.
In addition, many landfills have been filled during the last century and closed after they have reached their final capacity. This regards sites for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), but also landfills which have been filled with industrial and hazardous waste (or mixtures of both). Today, a significant share of these closed landfills still emit landfill gas (LFG) and polluted leachate, caused by long term anaerobic biodegradation processes or leaching of contaminants caused by a lack of sufficient protection barriers. In consequence, a number of hazardous waste landfills had to be remediated in the past whereat remediation measures often continue at present. In some exceptional cases these sites are nowadays subject to landfill mining activities, aiming at a complete removal of the waste and its hazardous potential.
Some waste disposal sites can be remediated by the application of biological in-situ measures aiming at an accelerated and sustainable reduction of the remaining emission potential. The overall intention behind these activities is the reduction in landfill aftercare, both in terms of finances and efforts.
For others sites, which cannot be remediated by means of biological processes, securing measures may have to be applied. These measures range from the concept of encapsulation to a long lasting active treatment of soil and water which are contaminated by the emissions.
The training course will address multiple issues related to the treatment and safe disposal of IHW, landfill remediation and securing as well as options for the securing of further contaminated sites (technical measures for emission control and reduction, legal obligations, and methodologies for biological landfill stabilization).